1800’sa timeline of natural light, the hidden light, and the ever-present darkness in the Western World

1803 Ludwig van Beethoven composes and performs Eroica Symphony no. 3. This piece marks the beginning of the Romantic period, in which the formality of the Classical period is replaced by subjectivity.

1805: Massacre of Jews in Algeria.

1806 GRA’s edition with his commentary of the Sefer Yetzirah published.

1807 G W F Hegel publishes The Phenomenology of Spirit. Beethoven completes his Symphony No. 5.

1808 Jonathan Wolfgang Von Goethe’s Faust I

1811-1813 Jane Austen publishes her novels Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice.

1815: Franz Schubert writes “Der Erlkönig,” his first public success and most famous song. Pope Pius VII reestablishes the ghetto in Rome after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo.

1816 : Gioacchino Rossini's The Barber of Seville, based on Pierre Beaumarchais's play, debuts in Rome. His Otello opens in Naples

1818 Mary Shelley publishes her novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus.

1819 Arthur Schopenhauer’s The World as Will and Idea. A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighboring countries: Denmark, Latvia and Bohemia known as Hep-Hep riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany.

1820 Percy Bysshe Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound.

1822 Jean Francois Champollion announces that he has translated the Rosetta Stone and translate Egyptian hieroglyphs for the first time. Joseph Fourier’s The Analytical Theory of Heat.

1824: Ludwig van Beethoven finishes and performs his Symphony no. 9. George Gordon Byron’s Don Juan. Fredrick Gauss postulates non-Euclidean geometry.

1826: Moses Mendelssohn writes the overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, which debuts in Stettin in 1827.

1827 August 26: Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish boys under 18 years of age, known as the Cantonists, were placed in preparatory military training establishments for 25 years. Cantonists were encouraged and sometimes forced to baptize.

1830 Hector Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique.

1831 Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction.

1834 Edgar Allan Poe publishes the poem To One in Paradise.

1835 Alexis de Tocqueville publishes his Democracy in America. Oppressive constitution for the Jews issued by Czar Nicholas I of Russia.

1836 Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes his essay Nature, begins the Transcendentalism philosophic tradition.

1837 Charles Dickens The Pickwick Papers. Emerson “American Scholar” address.

1838 Oliver Twist published by Charles Dickens.

1839: The New York Philharmonic is established. Charles Dickens Nicholas Nickleby.

1839- 1842 Edgar Allan Poe publishes The Fall of the House of Usher, Murder in the Rue Morgue, and Masque of the Red Death

1840: The Damascus affair: false accusations cause arrests and atrocities, culminating in the seizure of sixty-three Jewish children and attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Middle East.

1843 John Stuart Mill publishes his System of Logic. Edgar Allan Poe publishes The Tell Tale Heart. Charles Dicken’s A Christmas Carol. Soren Kierkegaard’s Either/Or, Fear and Trembling.

1844 Samuel F B Morse dispatches the first telegram. Karl Marx praises Bruno Bauer's essays containing demands that the Jews abandon Judaism, and publishes his work On the Jewish Question: "What is the worldly cult of the Jew? Huckstering. What is his worldly god? Money... Money is the jealous God of Israel, besides which no other god may exist... The god of the Jews has been secularized and has become the god of this world", "In the final analysis, the emancipation of the Jews is the emancipation of mankind from Judaism." This probably led to the antisemitic feeling within communism.

1845 Michael Faraday shows through experimental evidence that both Magnets and electricity generate fields of force. He also discovers that light propagation can be influenced by external magnetic fields. Henry David Thoreau builds a cabin at Walden Pond to work on his writings and to live a simple life. Edgar Allan Poe publishes The Purloined Letter and The Raven.

1846 Faraday gives a lecture at the English Royal Institution in which he proposes his view that there is a unity in the forces of nature. He proposes that the field lines of electricity and magnets are associated with atoms and that this could provide the medium by which light waves were propagated without the aether. Fields of force connect the atomic particles. The vibrations of these fields create the waves of light, electricity, and magnetism. Edgar Allan Poe publishes The Cask of Amontillado.

1847 Hermann Von Helmholtz describes the law of the conservation of energy. Thoreau leaves Walden Pond. Charlotte Bronte publishes her novel Jane Eyre.

1848 Karl Mark and Engels write and publish Communist Manifesto. The Women’s suffrage movement begins in the United States. Henry David Thoreau publishes ‘Resistance to Civil Government’ that became known as ‘Civil Disobediences’.

1850 Charles Dickens David Copperfield. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter.

1851 Herman Melville publishes Moby Dick. Giuseppe Fortunino FrancescoVerdi's Rigoletto debuts in Venice.

1853: Blood libels in Saratov and throughout Russia. Richard Wagner publishes the librettos to Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring Cycle): Das Rheingold, Die Walküre, Seigfried and Die Götterdämerung. The Ring Cycle is considered one of the most ambitious musical projects ever undertaken by a single person.

1854 Eliphas Levi’s first book Dogma et Rituel de la Haute Magie: The Dogma and Rituals of High Magic published. Levi fleshes out the idea that the Major Arcana is matched to the Hebrew alphabet. Henry David Thoreau publishes Walden. Franz Liszt conducts the first performance of his symphonic poems in Weimar. The symphonic poem is an orchestral work, often in one movement, and is usually based on a literary idea. Liszt is credited with creating the genre. His symphonic poems include Orpheus,Les Preludes and Mazeppa.

1855 Walt Whitman publishes first edition of Leaves of Grass.

1856: A French translation of Maimonides's Guide for the Perplexed accompanied the first critical edition, published by Salomon Munk in three volumes from 1856 (Le Guide des égarés: Traité de Théologie et de Philosophie par Moïse ben Maimoun dit Maïmonide. Publié Pour la première fois dans l'arabe original et accompagné d'une traduction française et notes des critiques littéraires et explicatives par S. Munk). Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary.

1858: Edgardo Mortara, a six-year-old Jewish boy whom a maid had baptised during an illness, is taken from his parents in Bologna, an episode which aroused universal indignation in liberal circles.

1859 Charles Darwin publishes the Origin of Species. John Stuart Mill publishes On Liberty. Charles Dickens publishes A Tale of Two Cities.

1860 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff observe dark lines in the spectrum of a light source pass through burning substances.

1861 United States of America Civil War begins. James Clark Maxwell, using Thomas Young’s theory of color and vision, produces the first color photograph image. Elipahs Levi publishes La Clef des Grands Mysteres. Charles Dickens Great Expectations.

1862 James Clark Maxwell realizes that electricity and magnetism has to be related to light when he discovers that they all traveled at the same speed. Maxwell uses Robert Faraday’s ideas and work to build a mathematical theory of the unified field of magnets and electricity. Victor Hugo Publishes Les Miserables. During the American Civil War General Grant issues General Order № 11, ordering all Jews out of his military district, suspecting them of pro-Confederate sympathy. President Lincoln directs him to rescind the order. Polish Jews are given equal rights. Old privileges forbidding Jews to settle in some Polish cities are abolished.

1863 The Emancipation Proclamation is issued. Abraham Lincoln gives his Gettysburg Address.

1864 Jules Verne publishes his novel Journey to the Center of the Earth. Louis Pastuer completes first successful experiment of the procedure to be known as pasteurization.

1865 Gregor Mendel proposes his theory of genetic inheritance. Jules Verne publishes his novel From Earth to the Moon. President Abraham Lincoln assassinated.

1867 Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital.

1868 John Chalmers publishes the first complete English translation of the Tao Te Ching. Samuel Bierfield is believed to be the first Jew lynched in the United States. Bierfield and his African-American clerk, Lawrence Bowman, were apprehended in Bierfield's store in Franklin, Tennessee and fatally shot by a group of masked men believed to belong to the Ku Klux Klan, on August 15, 1868. No one was ever convicted of the crime, however.

1869 Russian Chemist Dmitry Mendeleyv, using the work of John Dalton and others, first charts the elements and organize them in order of their atomic weights, thus establishing the Periodic Table of Elements. Leo Tolstoy publishes War and Peace

1870 Jules Verne publishes his novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.

1871 Charles Darwin publishes The Descent of Man. Speech of Pope Pius IX in regard to Jews: "of these dogs, there are too many of them at present in Rome, and we hear them howling in the streets, and they are disturbing us in all places." Giuseppe Fortunino FrancescoVerdi's Aïda premieres in Cairo.

1872 Fredrick Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy

1873 Maxwell publishes his paper Electricity and Magnetism.

1874: Verdi's Requiem, his most respected work, premieres in Milan.

1875 Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Madame Blavatsky founds the Theosophical Society.

1876 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky completes Swan Lake. It opens in 1877 at Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre. Richard Wagner's The Ring Cycle is performed in full at the Bayreuth Festival. The opera house was built to accommodate Wagner's works. Johannes Brahms completes his First Symphony. Twenty years in the making, the symphony received mixed reviews but would become one of the most popular ever written.

1877 Alexander Graham Bell invents the phonograph. Camille Saint-Saën's Samson et Dalila debuts in Weimar.

1878: Adolf Stoecker, German antisemitic preacher and politician, founds the Christian Social Party, which marks the beginning of the political antisemitic movement in Germany.

1879: Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian and politician, justifies the antisemitic campaigns in Germany, bringing antisemitism into learned circles. Wilhelm Marr coins the term Anti-Semitism to distinguish himself from religious Anti-Judaism

1880: John Paine's symphony, In Spring, debuts in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is the first American symphony published in the United States. Tchaikovsky writes the 1812 Overture, commemorating Russia's defeat of Napoleon. Fyodor Dostoevsky’s The Brother Karamazov.

1881 First wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine. The Boston Symphony Orchestra is established. The first complete English translation of Maimonides's Guide for the Perplexed by M. Friedländer, with Mr. Joseph Abrahams and Reverend H. Gollancz. It was originally published in a three volume edition with footnotes.

1881–1884: Pogroms sweep southern Russia, propelling mass Jewish emigration from the Pale of Settlement: about 2 million Russian Jews emigrated in period 1880–1924, many of them to the United States (until the National Origins Quota of 1924 and Immigration Act of 1924 largely halted immigration to the U.S. from Eastern Europe and Russia). The Russian word "pogrom" becomes international.

1882: The Tiszaeszlár blood libel in Hungary arouses public opinion throughout Europe. First International Anti-Jewish Congress convenes at Dresden, Germany. May:A series of "temporary laws" by Tsar Alexander III of Russia (the May Laws), which adopted a systematic policy of discrimination, with the object of removing the Jews from their economic and public positions, in order to "cause one-third of the Jews to emigrate, one-third to accept baptism and one-third to starve" (according to a remark attributed to Konstantin Pobedonostsev). The Berlin Philharmonic is established.

1883: The Metropolitan Opera House opens in New York. Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra, finishes in 1884.

1884 Sefer Yetzirah Warsaw edition published. Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn.

1885: Gilbert and Sullivan finish The Mikado, which premieres in London.

1886 Nietzsche's Beyond Good and Evil.

1887: Russia introduces measures to limit Jews access to education, known as the quota. S. L. MacGregor Mather publishes The Kabbalah Unveiled. Arthur Conan Doyle publishes The Study in Scarlet.

1888 William Wynn Westcott together with Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers founded the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Jack the Ripper murders occur in Whitechapel London England. Johann Strauss writes the symphonic poem, Don Juan

1889 The next Tarot deck to be invented for Occult divination was by Oswald Wirth. Gerard Encausse writes under the name, Papus, and he used Wirth’s deck in his own book Le Tarot des Bohemiens. He also designs a Tarot deck. Vincent Van Gogh’s Starry Night.

1890 Oscar Wilde publishes The Pictures of Dorian Gray. Pyotr Ilyish Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty debuts in St. Petersburg. William James publishes his two volume Principles of Psychology. James George Frazer’s The Golden Bough: A Study in Comparative Religion.

1891 Arthur Conan Doyle publishes The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. Blood libel in Xanten, Germany. Expulsion of 20,000 Jews from Moscow, Russia. The Congress of the United States eases immigration restrictions for Jews from the Russian Empire. Carnegie Hall opens in New York.

1892 Tchaikovsky performs The Nutcracker Suite. Justinas Bonaventure Pranaitis writes The Talmud Unmasked an antisemitic and misleading inaccurate anti-Talmudic work.

1893: Karl Lueger establishes antisemitic Christian Social Party and becomes the Mayor of Vienna in 1897. Antonin Dvorak composes his best and most popular work, From the New World. F. H. Bradley’s Appearance and Reality.

1894: The Dreyfus Affair in France. In 1898 Émile Zola publishes open letter J'accuse!, in Dreyfus’s defense. Heinrich Hertz’s Principles of Mechanics.

1895 Herbert George Wells publishes The Time Machine. A. C. Cuza organizes the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest, Romania. January 5: Captain Alfred Dreyfus being dishonorably discharged in France. Oscar Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest. Emile Durkheim’s Rules of Sociological Method.

1896 Theodore Hertzl publishes The Jewish State, and with it creates the concept of Zionist movement within Judaism. Ragtime, a combination of West Indian rhythm and European musical form, is born. William James address the Philosophical Club of Yale and Brown University, his talk is The Will to Believe.

1897 William James publishes book of essays The Will to Believe

1898 Herbert George Wells publishes The War of the Worlds.

1899: Houston Stewart Chamberlain, racist and antisemitic author, publishes his Die Grundlagen des 19 Jahrhunderts which later became a basis of National-Socialist ideology.

And so it goes…