1700’s a timeline of natural light, the hidden light, and the ever-present darkness in the Western World

1700’s a timeline of natural light, the hidden light, and the ever-present darkness in the Western World

1700-1750: Johann Sebastian Bach composes and performs approximately 650+ musical pieces during his lifetime.

1703: Antonio Vivaldi becomes violin master at Venice's La Pieta orphanage. He writes more then 400 concertos for La Pieta in his 35-year service there.

1704 Isaac Newton waits for the death of Robert Hooke, and then Newton publishes his new presentation of light in Opticks.

1705: Reinhard Keiser uses French horns for the first time in opera in his production of Octavia.

1708 Rabbi Mordecai Ben Jacob’s Pa’amon ve Rimmon (Bell and Pomegranate).

1710 Bishop Berkeley publishes his Principles of Human Knowledge. Dov Ber born in Bolhynia, he will become Rabbi Dov Ber, the Maggid of Meziritch, the leader of the Hassidic movement after the death of the Baal Shem Tov

1711: Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum ("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern antisemitic polemics.

1712: Blood libel in Sandomierz and expulsion of the town's Jews.

1719 First publication of ARI’s commentary to the Sefer Yetzirah

Circa 1720 Israel ben Eliezer takes on the title Baal Shem. Elijah ben Shlomo Zalmen Kremer (the GRA) born in Vilna Lithuania.

1724 Johan Sebastian Bach composes and preforms his Passion According to Saint John.

1725: Antonio Vivaldi writes The Four Seasons.

1726: Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels.

1727: Edict of Catherine I of Russia: "The Jews... who are found in Ukraine and in other Russian provinces are to be expelled at once beyond the frontiers of Russia."

1733: The comic opera, La Serva Padrona, from Battista Pergolesi's serious opera Il Prigionier Superbo, wows Europe with its humorous story and enchanting music.

1734: Alexander Pope’s Essay on Man and Voltaire’s Letters Philosophiques.

1734-1736: The Haidamaks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews.

1740: Israel Ben Eliezer, takes on the title of the Baal Shem Tov, the Master of the Good Name, and begins his teachings in the small city of Medzhybizh in the Ukraine. It is his own form of Judaism, which will be known as Hassidism. David Hume publishes his Treatise on Human Nature.

1741 George Frideric Handel composes and preforms his Messiah.

1742 December: Elizabeth of Russia issues a decree of expulsion of all the Jews out of Russian Empire. Her resolution to the Senate's appeal regarding harm to the trade: "I don't desire any profits from the enemies of Christ". One of the deportees is Antonio Ribera Sanchez, her own personal physician and the head of army's medical dept.

1744: Frederick II The Great limits Breslau to ten "protected" Jewish families, on the grounds that otherwise they will "transform it into complete Jerusalem". He encourages this practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issues Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: "protected" Jews had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin" (Simon Dubnow). Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa orders: "... no Jew is to be tolerated in our inherited duchy of Bohemia" by the end of Feb. 1745. In December 1748 she reverses her position, on condition that Jews pay for readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld (queen's money).

1748 David Hume’s Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

1749 Henry Fieldings Tom Jones

1750 : Johann Sebastian Bach dies. The end of the Baroque period is often seen in conjunction with his death. The highly ornate style of the Baroque period gives rise to the more simple, clarified styles of the Classical period, which sees the emergence of symphonies and string quartets.

1752 Benjamin Franklin demonstrates that lightning is a form of electricity. Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa introduces the law limiting each Jewish family to one son.

1760 Israel ben Eliezer, The Baal Shem Tov, dies Medzhybizh, Poland and Rabbi Dov Ber of Mezeritch (the Maggid) becomes the next leader of the Hassidic movement.

1761: Franz Joseph Haydn becomes Vice-Kapellmeister to the Esterhazy family and Kapellmeister in 1766. Though living virtually as a slave to the family, he had at his disposal an impressive orchestra. During his 30-year service to the family, he completes 108 symphonies, 68 string quartets, 47 piano sonatas, 26 operas, 4 oratorios and hundreds of smaller pieces.

1762: Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony."

1768: Haidamaks massacre the Jews of Uman, Poland. Encyclopedia Britannica is published for the first time.

1770 Parisian occultist Jean-Baptiste Alliette, publishes Etteilla, or a Method of Entertaining Oneself with a Pack of Cards, therein he describes his method of divination using the common four suit deck of playing cards. He also briefly mentions the Tarot deck, those with the fifth suit of trumps as a divination tool.

April 11, 1772 first major excommunication against Hasidism issued by the GRA. Maggid’s pupils Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk and Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi visit the GRA and try to bring reconciliation between the GRA’s Mitnagdim and Hassidism. This fails. Rabbi Shneur Zalman founds Chabad Hassdic movement Rabbi Dov Ber December 1772 dies Hanipol.

1775: Pope Pius VI issues a severe Editto sopra gli ebrei (Edict concerning the Jews). Previously lifted restrictions are reimposed, Judaism is suppressed.

1775 The American Revolution begins.

1776 Thomas Jefferson et al, drafts the Declaration of Independence. Adam Smith publishes his economic treatise describing the hidden hand of capitalism in the Wealth of Nations. Edward Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1778 Antoine Court de Gebelin’s nine volumes set Le Monde Primitif Analyse et Compare avec le Monde Moderne, published in Paris. His essay presents the idea that the Tarot was of Egyptian origin based on his fake ‘translation’ of Egyptian hieroglyphics. Gebelin invites Louis-Raphael-Lucrece de Fayolle, le Comte de Mellet to publish an essay on the Tarot as well. De Mellet begins the process of matching the Tarot’s Major Arcana can be linked to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

1779 Elijah ben Shlomo Zalmen Kremer (GRA) dies in Vilna. David Hume’s Dialogue Concerning Natural Religion.

1781 Immanuel Kant, in response to the work of Hume, and Berkeley, publishes his Critique of Pure Reason.

1782: Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II abolishes most of persecution practices in Toleranzpatent on condition that Yiddish and Hebrew are eliminated from public records and judicial autonomy is annulled. Judaism is branded "quintessence of foolishness and nonsense". Moses Mendelssohn writes: "Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution".

1785 Etteilla publishes A Way to Entertain Oneself with a Pack of Cards Called Tarots. Etteilla repeats the Egyptian origin story of the Tarot calling the deck The book of Thoth.

1786: Amadeus Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro premieres in Vienna.

1787-88 In America, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay publish and distribute The Federalist Papers. Mozart performs his Don Giovanni.

1788 In July the final 11th state assembly ratifies the U. S. constitution. Amadeus Mozart’s Jupiter Symphony.

1789 On March 4, 1789, the United States of America government began operations. The French revolution begins. James Madison introduces the first ten amendments to the new constitution to the first congress of the United States of America. Etteilla publishes his first new Tarot deck specifically made for divination. He calls this deck The Book of Thoth. William Blake’s Songs of Innocence.

1790 May 20: Eleazer Solomon is quartered for the alleged murder of a Christian girl in Grodno.

1790–1792: Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.

1791: Catherine II of Russia confines Jews to the Pale of Settlement and imposes them with double taxes. The eleventh United States’ state assembly ratifies the 10 amendments, also known as The Bill of Rights, to the U. S. Constitution. These amendments now become law.

1792 Mary Wollstonecraft publishes Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

1793 William Blake’s Marriage of Heaven and Hell.

1798 Thomas Robert Malthus’s Essay on the Principles of Population.

1799 Napoleon Bonaparte becomes first consul in France officially ending the French Revolution.

And so it goes…