1600’s a timeline of natural light, the hidden light, and the ever-present darkness in the Western World

1600’s a timeline of natural light, the hidden light, and the ever-present darkness in the Western World

1600 Giordano Bruno burned at the stake for heresy by the Catholic Church. Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Gilbert On the Magnet.

c. 1600: The Baroque period, characterized by strict musical forms and highly ornamental works, begins in Europe. This period signals the end of the Renaissance.

1601/02 Athanasius Kircher born in Geisa Germany

1603: Frei Diogo da Assumpcão, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, burned alive in Lisbon.

1604 Johannes Kelpler Supplement to Witelo. This helped to establish the geometry of optics of the human eye.

1605 Bacon’s Advancement of Learning. Cervantes Don Quixote.

1607:Italian master composer Claudio Monteverdi writes the opera Orfeo, Favola in Musica, a work deemed to be a prime example of the early Baroque musical form

1608: The Jesuit order forbids admission to anyone descended from Jews to the fifth generation, a restriction lifted in the 20th century. Three years later Pope Paul V applies the rule throughout the Church, but his successor revokes it.

1609 Galileo Galilei develops a magnifying device to study small objects with a convex and a concave lens. Kepler’s Astronomia Nova, first two laws of planetary motion.

1610 Galileo announces telescopic discoveries in Sidereus Nuncius.

1611 Shakespeare’s The Tempest. King James translation of Bible into English.

1612: The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in Hamburg on the condition there is no public worship.

1614: Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the "new Haman of the Jews", leads a raid on Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.

1615: King Louis XIII of France decrees that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death. The Guild led by Dr. Chemnitz, "non-violently" forced the Jews from Worms.

1616 Catholic Church declares Copernican theory of heliocentric solar system false and erroneous.

1618 The beginning of what will be known as the Thirty Year War; a religious war between the forces of Protestant Christian governments with the forces of Catholic Holy Roman Empire in Europe.

1619 Cornelius Drebbel presents in London a compound devise to study small objects with two convex lenses, his version of what will be called the microscope. Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increases persecution against the Jews, forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. Many keep practicing Judaism in secret. Kepler’s Harmonia Mundi, third law of planetary motion. Descartes’s revelatory vision of a new science.

1624: Ghetto established in Ferrara, Italy.

1625 Giovanni Faber coins the word microscope by analogy to the telescope for these devices that magnify small objects that Jansen, Galileo and Drebbel had invented. Philippe d’Aquin publishes the Tree of Kabbalah. Francesca Caccini, who most historians say is the first female composer, finishes the opera-ballet La Liberazione di Ruggiero, which is performed at a reception for Wladyslaw IV of Poland.

1631 :Professional female singers appear for the first time on the English stage in the production of Chloridia, a court masque produced by Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones.

1632: King Ladislaus IV of Poland forbids antisemitic books and printings. Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.

1633 Galileo’s condemned by Inquisition.

1637 Descartes’s Discourse on Method.

1638 Galileo’s Two New Sciences.

1639: The first comic opera, Chi Soffre Speri by Virgilio Mazzocchi and Marco Marazzoli, premieres in Rome.

1644 Descartes’s Principles of Philosophy

1648 The end of what will be known as The Thirty Year War between Protestant Christian forces and the Catholic Christian forces of the Holy Roman Empire in Europe.

1648–1655: The Ukrainian Cossacks led by Bohdan Chmielnicki massacre about 100,000 Jews and similar number of Polish nobles, 300 Jewish communities destroyed.

1650 – 1654 Athanasius Kircher, S.J. was a German Jesuit scholar , he publishes Oedipus Aegyptiacus

1656 : Henry Lawes and Matthew Locke add music to William Davenant's libretto The Siege of Rhodes, which is performed at the Rutland House in London. Davenant helps make the opera-masque a form of public entertainment.

1660 Boyle’s New Experiments Physico-Mechanical

1664 May: Jews of Lemberg (now Lvov) ghetto organize self-defense against impending assault by students of Jesuit seminary and Cathedral school. The militia sent by the officials to restore order, instead joined the attackers. About 100 Jews killed.

1665: Oliver Cromwell readmits Jews to England. Robert Hooke publishes Micropraphia, a collection of biological micrographs. He coins the word cell for the structures he discovers in cork bark.

1666: The first signed Stradivarius violins emerge from Antonio Stradivari's workshop in Cremona, Italy.

1670: Jews expelled from Vienna.

1678: Forced mass conversions in Yemen.

1672 Isaac Newton publishes his first presentation of the theory of light and color in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

1673 Anton van Leeuwenhoek improves on the process of making lenses without grinding them for his microscope. He began a major investigation of microbiology and is considered the ‘father’ of this study. He corresponds with the Royal Society of London concerning his work, which continues through to 1716.

1675 : Matthew Locke composes Psyche, the first surviving English opera.

1684 Christian Knorr von Rosenroth’s Kabbala Denudata (The Hidden Kabbala) published.

1685: Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel are born. They become principal classical composers of the Baroque period. Bach, who fathers 20 children, explores musical forms associated with the church and Handel works as a dramatic composer.

1687 Isaac Newton’s important texts Principia Mathematica and Philosphiae Naturalis are published.

1689: Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas opens in London.

1698? Israel ben Eliezer (The Baal Shem Tov) born in Okopy, Poland

And so it goes…