1000- 1100’s a timeline of natural light, the hidden light, and the ever-present darkness in the Western World

1000- 1100’s a timeline of natural light, the hidden light, and the ever-present darkness in the Western World

1008–1013: Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ("the Mad") issues severe restrictions against Jews in the Fatimid Empire. All Jews are forced to wear a heavy wooden "golden calf" around their necks. Christians had to wear a large wooden cross and members of both groups had to wear black hats.

1012: One of the first known persecutions of Jews in Germany: Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor expels Jews from Mainz.

1013: During the fall of the city, Sulayman's troops looted Córdoba and massacred citizens of the city, including many Jews. Prominent Jews in Córdoba, such as Samuel ibn Naghrela were forced to flee to the city in 1013.Siege of Cordoba

1016: The Jewish community of Kairouan, Tunisia is forced to choose between conversion and expulsion.

1026: Probable date of the chronicle of Raoul Glaber. The French chronicler blamed the Jews for the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which was destroyed in 1009 by (Muslim) Caliph Al-Hakim. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns.

c. 1030: Guido of Arezzo, an Italian monk, develops a system for learning music by ear. Voice students often use the system, called solfège, to memorize their vocal exercises. In the 19th century, solf ège developed into the tonic sol-fa system used today.

1032: Abul Kamal Tumin conquers Fez, Morocco and decimates the Jewish community, killing 6,000 Jews.

1033: Following their conquest of the city from the Maghrawa tribe, the forces of Tamim, chief of the Zenata Berber Banu Ifran tribe, perpetrated a massacre of Jews in Fez. Fez massacre

1040 Shlmo Yitzhaki, who will become Rabbi Shlmo Yitzhaki and known as RASHI is born in Troyes France.

1050:Council of Narbonne, France forbids Christians to live in Jewish homes.

1066 December 30: Granada massacre: Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city. "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day."

1078: Council of Girona decrees Jews to pay taxes for support of the Catholic Church to the same extent as Christians.

1090: The Jewish community of Granada, which had recovered after the attacks of 1066, attacked again at the hands of the Almoravides led by Yusuf ibn Tashfin.

1095 The first of the Papal sanctioned Christian and Islamic wars initiated by Pope Urban II by declaring the first Crusade.

1096: The First Crusade. Three hosts of crusaders pass through several Central European cities. The third, unofficial host, led by Count Emicho, decides to attack the Jewish communities, most notably in the Rhineland, under the slogan: "Why fight Christ's enemies abroad when they are living among us?" Eimicho's host attacks the synagogue at Speyer and kills all the defenders. 800 are killed in Worms. Another 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mainz to escape his attempt to forcibly convert them; see German Crusade, 1096. Attempts by the local bishops remained fruitless. All in all, 5,000 Jews were murdered

Circa 1101- 1200 Provence France School of Kabbalah

1105 Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhak, RASHI, dies in Treyes France.

1107: Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yusuf ibn Tashfin ordered all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.

1143: 150 Jews were killed in Ham, France.

1144 March 20 (Passover): The case of William of Norwich, a contrived accusation of murder by Jews in Norwich, England.

1148: The rule of the Almohads in al-Andalus. Only Jews who had converted to Christianity or Islam were allowed to live in Granada. One of the refugees was Maimonides who settled in Fez.

1150 Rediscovery of Aristotle’s works begins in Western Christian world

1166-1168 Moses Maimonides while studying at what is now the University of Al-Karaouine in Fes, Morocco, he composes his commentary on the Mishnah.

1165:Forced mass conversions of Jews to Islam in Yemen

1171: In Blois, France 31 Jews were burned at the stake for blood libel.

c. 1174 - The Bahir was published by the Provence school of Kabbalists and was circulated to a limited audience in manuscript form.

1179: The Third Lateran Council, Canon 26: Jews are forbidden to be plaintiffs or witnesses against Christians in the Courts. Jews are forbidden to withhold inheritance from descendants who had accepted Christianity.

c. 1180: Troubadours appear in Germany and call themselves minnesingers, “singers about love.” Philip Augustus of France after four months in power, imprisons all the Jews in his lands and demands a ransom for their release.

1181: Philip Augustus annuls all loans made by Jews to Christians and takes a percentage for himself. A year later, he confiscates all Jewish property and expels the Jews from Paris.

1185 Andre le Chapelain’s Art of Courtly Love.

1189: Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa orders priests not to preach against Jews. A Jewish deputation attending coronation of Richard the Lionheart was attacked by the crowd. Pogroms in London followed and spread around England.

1190 February 6:All the Jews of Norwich, England found in their houses were slaughtered, except a few who found refuge in the castle. March 16: 500 Jews of York were massacred after a six-day siege by departing Crusaders, backed by a number of people indebted to Jewish money-lenders. Saladdin takes over Jerusalem from Crusaders and lifts the ban for Jews to live there. Moses Maimonides’s Guide for the Perplexed is published in Arabic in Cairo, Egypt.

1198:Philip Augustus readmits Jews to Paris, only after another ransom was paid and a taxation scheme was set up to procure funds for himself. August: Saladdin's nephew al-Malik, caliph of Yemen, summons all the Jews and forcibly converts them.

And so it goes…